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Torrefacto-Roasted Coffee Has Higher Antioxidant Properties

ScienceDaily (Mar. 10, 2008) —

Torrefacto-roasted coffee has higher antioxidant properties than natural roast, according to the dissertation defended by a biologist of the University of Navarra, Isabel López Galilea. She has emphasized in her study that the addition of sugar during the roasting process increases the development of compounds with high antioxidant activity.

The researcher of Department of Food Sciences, Physiology and Toxicology of the University of Navarra analyzed eleven varieties of commercial coffee for her study, which was entitled “The Influence of Torrefacto Roasting on the Principal Components of Coffee and its Antioxidant and Pro-oxidant Capacity.”

As this scientist of the School of Sciences emphasized, numerous studies have shown the benefits of this drink. In particular, it is considered to be one of the best sources for antioxidants in the diet; these substances help to protect us against free radicals, which are a cause of premature aging and certain diseases. Coffee has an antioxidant capacity which is ten times higher than other drinks, such as red wine and tea, according to the researcher.

Antioxidant capacity varies according to preparation method

In order to carry out this research, Isabel López analyzed the coffee consumption habits of the inhabitants of Navarra, via 300 surveys. The results showed that Navarrans consume an average of 125 ml of coffee per day, with consumption slightly higher among women. In addition, they primarily consume ground coffee resulting from a mixture of natural roast and torrefacto-roast coffees, and the coffee is generally prepared with Italian or mocha coffee makers, followed by the filter, espresso and pump methods.

After confirming the increased antioxidant capacity of ground coffees roasted using the torrefacto process, she showed how these properties were present in the brewed coffee, which is the typical form of coffee consumption. In regard to the different preparation methods, she discovered that espresso machines produce a drink with the highest antioxidant capacity, more than coffee produced by the Italian, filter and pump methods. These properties may be due to the greater content of ‘brown compounds’ [compuestos pardos] developed during the roasting process, as well as to polyphenic compounds and caffeine.

In addition, she demonstrated that both the compounds contained in coffee as well as its aroma are affected by the type of roast and the system of extraction; nevertheless, this is a topic that will require further study in order to identify results under varying conditions.

In her study, Dr. López identified 34 volatile compounds with high aromatic impact on coffee drinks, and new aromatic compounds were detected, such as octanol, which produces an intense orange aroma.


Former Apple and NASA engineers create $11,000 coffee maker

Mike Flacy October 2, 2012 By 


Completely equipped with a digital camera and Wi-Fi connectivity, Blossom Coffee is serious about brewing the perfect cup of coffee.

Detailed on ABC News recently, a company called Blossom Coffee has designed an extremely expensive coffee maker that delivers a cup of coffee that’s been brewed at the perfect temperature. Called the Blossom One Limited, the production model was developed by MIT graduate Jeremy Kempel as well as  Matt Walliser and Joey Roth. Prior to creating the Blossom One Limited, Kempel worked for Apple developing the iPad, as well as Tesla Motors and BMW while Walliser previously worked for NASA and Formula Hybrid. When asked about the reasons behind the development of the Blossom One Limited, Kempel stated “We started with the coffee and designed around it.”

Interestingly, the Blossom One Limited comes with a variety of high-tech features. For instance, Kempel added a 1.3MP digital camera to the Blossom One Limited in order to scan Quick Response (QR) codes. Coffee roasters can add a QR code onto packaging in order to offer a helpful recipe for a specific type of bean.

In addition, information such as timing and volume can be fed back to the roaster each time a QR code is scanned. All of this data is fed into a custom Blossom application as well. Providing wireless communication, Blossom Coffee has included 802.11 b/g/n Wi-Fi connectivity which allows users to download new recipes. It also allows Blossom Coffee to monitor the machine’s performance remotely and prepare for service calls.

Describing the brewing process on the Blossom Coffee blog, the team writes “When a cup of coffee is to be brewed, gravity carries the specified volume of water from the reservoir to the boiler where it is heated to temperature on demand. When the water achieves the proper temperature, a whisper quiet air pump pushes it from the boiler into the brew chamber unit. Finally, heating elements in the brew chamber unit maintain the brew temperature precisely as specified by the user.”

The Blossom One Limited is definitely larger than a traditional coffee maker. While it could fit in a large kitchen provided there’s enough counter space, the height of the machine may preclude placement underneath a cabinet. The brew chamber is constructed out of glass and stainless steel to allow for higher precision.

The water reservoir automatically fills itself silently when tied into the plumbing of a home or business. The Blossom One Limited also includes a manual plunger if the user if particularly picky about their coffee. All pieces of the machine are designed to be modular in for quick cleaning.

While Blossom Coffee is targeting restaurants and small cafes for commercial use, this hasn’t stopped private individuals from inquiring about a model. The Blossom One Limited will sell for $11,111 and the wood finish can be customized to match kitchen or coffee shop cabinetry. Each unit will be hand-delivered, likely by a representative of Blossom Coffee, and the customer will receive a personalized set of instructions to learn about the technological features and general operation. Beyond the lifetime defect-free guarantee, Blossom Coffee also offers a one-year parts and labor warranty.

Read more:

India falling for Coffee?

Starbucks has announced it is to open its first outlet in India by the end of the year, marking the international chain’s first venture into the country. India has been a nation of tea drinkers for centuries, but in the past decade coffee has been on the rise. Is the chai losing out to the cappuccino?

At a small stand next to a photocopying shop, Ram Shankar Patidar is heating milk on a single gas stove. The focus of his attention is a stainless steel container, which is bubbling and rattling as he adds tea leaves, water, spices, and freshly crushed ginger.

Patidar has been making and selling Indian tea, better known as chai, for more than 40 years.

He has occupied the same spot in a busy suburban business district in Mumbai for more than a decade, but for the past eight weeks there’s been a new addition to the street.

Directly opposite his stand is a branch of India’s largest coffee chain, Cafe Coffee Day, abbreviated by many to CCD.

“They don’t make much of a difference to me,” he says as he ladles the mixture through muslin into a small glass. “Those who can afford to go to CCD would anyway. It’s much more expensive than what I sell.”

How to make chai

Ram Shankar Patidar
  • Heat 350ml water and 100ml of milk with four black peppercorns, 10 lightly crushed green cardamom pods, a good pinch of green fennel seeds, a small piece of cinnamon stick and a teaspoon of peeled and chopped fresh ginger
  • Boil gently for 15 minutes, until reduced to a large cupful
  • Add a teabag and brew for a minute, or longer
  • Strain into a cup and add sugar or salt to taste

For many years, the humble chai wallah has been part of the country’s fabric, but in the past decade, the makeshift roadside stalls have begun facing competition from Western-style coffee chains.

The first Cafe Coffee Day opened in 1996, marking the beginning of a change in Indian tastes and habits. The CCD chain is now opening a branch almost every week, and has more than 1,200 stores across India. It’s been joined by other chains, including Barista Lavazza and Costa Coffee.

Like their Western counterparts, India’s coffee shops serve a range of coffees from mochas to lattes, iced coffees to espressos. But their appeal is greater than their beverages.

“I go to coffee shops just to hang out,” says Zain Waris, a student in Mumbai. “In India, we don’t have many places to hang out, and these chains don’t have any objections to us spending hours and hours sitting there.”

India’s coffee culture has changed the way young Indians socialise.

In a country where there is a limited bar culture, and where drinking alcohol is still frowned upon in many circles, it has provided an acceptable and safe outlet for people, particularly young Indians, to share a drink.

What Indians drank in 2010

  • Tea: 837,000 tonnes
  • Coffee: 108,000 tonnes

It is common to see large groups of teenagers congregating at coffee shops later into the evening. Some branches provide guitars for jam sessions.

It has also helped facilitate the country’s growing dating culture – having a girlfriend or boyfriend at a young age is frowned upon by many, so secret trysts at a coffee shop have become the norm for many young Indians, and serve as a suitable bolthole away from the prying eyes of parents.

For 22-year-old graduate Ronak Mehta it’s the perfect place to discuss college work. “It’s much better than sitting on a bench, where you’d drink tea,” he says.

With more than half of the country’s population under 25, and a rising middle-class that is well aware of Western trends, there’s little wonder Indian coffee consumption has doubled in the past 15 years since the first cafes were opened.

Tea drinkers, MumbaiDashrat Rathod (right): People like me just drink up and go

“Earlier you had generally had coffee at home or the office. These new businesses have made the cafe culture more accessible, thus attracting a young crowd who could hang out in a relaxed atmosphere,” says Anil Dharker, a leading columnist and social commentator in India.

Even before the coffee chain revolution, coffee had a strong presence in South Indian homes. Typical South Indian coffee, or kapi, is a made with boiled milk and plenty of sugar, and is served in stainless steel tumblers. Many families drink more kapi than tea.

“We used to have coffee at home every morning,” says Dashrat Rathod, an engineer from Karnataka. “I’ve never been to a coffee shop, people like me don’t have the time to spend there, we drink up and go.”

Rathod might have a taste for coffee but isn’t prepared to pay for a serving in a new style coffee shop. The price of tea or coffee from a roadside stand is usually in the order of five rupees (about 10 US cents, or 6p), compared with around 80 rupees ($1.60, £1) upwards for a cappuccino or equivalent. This price barrier makes the coffee shop culture mainly a preserve of the upper middle classes in India.

The entrance of Starbucks, an American chain, into the Indian coffee market follows other international coffee brands such as Costa, Gloria Jeans, and Lavazza which has bought into Indian chain Barista. Like other Western brands, these tend to be seen as aspirational to many young Indians, says Anil Dharker.

Cafe Coffee Day in BangaloreCafe Coffee Day or CCD began the coffee invasion in 1996

Even so, he says, Starbucks and others may have to work to accommodate Indian tastes.

“What actually happens is that a foreign player sees a commercial opportunity and enters a new market. And then adapts. This is particularly so of the Indian market. Just take a look at McDonalds, it’s a completely different entity here,” says Dharker.

Starbucks globally does already serve its own brand of “Indian” tea, the chai tea latte, but it’s a world away from the unique taste of authentic Indian chai. It remains to be seen whether this will be an offering in the Indian stores.

But despite the coffee invasion, tea remains popular, with consumption rising from 562,000 tonnes annually to 837,000 tonnes in the last 15 years.

“More people are drinking tea because they like it, and because the population is rising,” says Surjit Patra from the Indian Tea Association.

The average Indian drinks now around 250 cups of tea per year. This is quite a low figure by international standards – in Ireland, for example, the average citizen drinks 1,000 cups per year – suggesting there could be room for further expansion.

“We have found lots of health benefits in tea,” Mr Patra says, unsurprisingly extolling the virtues of the drink he promotes. “There’s no other beverage like it. Not even coffee.”

Additional reporting by Aarti Thobhani.

The Six Hottest Coffee Trends Happening Right Now

by Linnea Covington

Long gone are the days of just brewing a pot of joe or mixing some hot water into a cup of instant coffee crystals. Today’s java drinkers can have a mug filled with steaming brew made in a variety of ways and from beans sourced from around the globe. As the craft coffee culture continues to grow, new trends have popped up—so, we enlisted a couple of coffee experts to explain what is hot (and in one case cold) in their barista world.

The Pour Over

What it is: Leaving the basic drip method of brewing behind, this style makes each cup an individual experience. First they pack a ceramic (or metal) cone with a filter and fresh grounds; next, they slowly pour hot water over the coffee in a steady stream, which drips out pure and uber fresh.

What they say: “In New York, the average consumer doesn’t just order the drip,” says Cora Lambert, the coffee director at RBC Coffee in New York. “More and more specialty coffee shops are investing in better pour over coffee.”

Artisanal Drip Coffee

What it is: Everyone knows the basic Mr. Coffee drip-style way to make coffee, but with new technology, this method is having a renaissance. Lambert says at RBC they use special fancy coffee makers, which she says makes a superb cup of Joe – and, with a price tag that runs in the hundreds to thousands of dollars, it better.

What they say: “If you are really paying attention to your drip coffee, which is often overlooked, you can actually get more consistency with these machines than with other methods.”

Light Roasted Coffee

What it is: Coffee beans start out green and from there can be roasted super dark like an Italian or French roasts; medium brown like city or American roasts; and finally light brown. The paler beans include the cinnamon and New England roasts and tend to give the coffee heavier acidic tones but, according to the experts, this style also brings out more of the natural qualities.

What they say: “At the roasting level the trend is towards more light roasted coffees,” says Jason Cain, coffee purveyor at Pablo’s Coffee in Denver. “The thought being that a lighter roast allows more of the origin character to shine through without giving over to the carbony flavor of a dark roast coffee. ”

Cold Brew

What it is: Though we left iced coffee behind months ago, a big trend last summer was cold brewing coffee instead of adding ice to hot coffee or letting the already brewed coffee cool off. This method employs course-ground beans and cold water, about a ratio of one part coffee to four parts water. You soak the grounds for at least 12 hours, then strain and serve.

What they say: “A lot of people love cold brew coffee and are a lot less likely to make hot coffee and then just add ice,” says Lambert. “I am a big fan because it’s smooth and less astringent. ”

Sourcing Beans

What it is: Just how detailed packaging for meat has boomed, Lambert says coffee growers have started adding information on their actual bags of beans. “Now it’s not only the country [listed], but the region, the name of the farmer and sometimes the elevation it’s grown at,” says Lambert. So far, she added, only Africa hasn’t really gotten in the game.

What they say: “Consumers are less content to just know the country or region where a coffee is grown,” says Cain. “It is becoming increasingly common to have coffees traced all the way back to the exact farm or farmer and many roasters are also bypassing importers completely and forming direct relationships with the farmers themselves. ”

Micro Roasting

What it is: Local has a new meaning in the coffee world as increasingly small shops have started roasting their own small batches of beans. For example, even though Cain’s employer Pablo’s only has one location, they roast their own beans and sell them to local businesses. A few other places that do this include Gorilla Coffee in Brooklyn, Blue Bottle in San Francisco, and Coffee by Design in Portland, Maine.

What they say: “On the national spectrum micro-roaster shops are becoming more apparent,” says Lambert. “As more small craft roasters open up, variety becomes the spice of life more people are saying they want to jazz up their product and bring more types in.”

How important is tamping pressure?

It is taught universally that 30lb (15 kg) of pressure is the optimum amount to compact coffee in the portafilter, so as to facilitate the correct denseness of the coffee for extraction. As a person who leans toward scientific proof, I did some research on the subject.

Tamping itself, is a method of compacting coffee as closely together as possible to remove air pockets or channels within the plug. Once tamped, the compacted coffee within the portafilter can be inverted to show its adhesion to each other facilitated by the force of pressure. Once the portafilter is inserted in the grouphead, and water is added, either by pre-infusion or by a straight pour, the tamped coffee loses pressure integrity immediately. Even lightly wetting a tight tamp will negate the effect.

Most modern coffee machines force water through at, give or take, 9 bars of pressure. If you work it out, that is 15-16 times greater than a 30lb tamp. Bearing in mind that a 30lb tamp has already lost its integrity and hold when initially wetted, the coffee itself during extraction, is no longer under tamp pressure, and will also be under much less integrity and way below pump pressure.

So what can we summarize from these observations? Firstly, a lot of barista’s out there are making fine coffee and NOT doing everything by the barista’s bible. I guess the obvious answer is that the coffee machine pump normalizes a poor tamp, or indeed, will pressurize the water through the grinds regardless of the tamp. I ran a test over 2 days of approximately 80 extractions, and found that there was a more basic component to good pours than tamp.

Grind density and dose size.

Make sure the basket is at the correct level for coffee grinds. Make sure the grind is fine enough to force the water through the coffee at the best rate. My two best pours were when the coffee was fine enough and I applied the tamp weight alone and swirled for a light polish with no added pressure!

It would appear then, that if a barista can apply the same pressure consistently to a correctly dialed in grind, that the coffee will be consistent for quality. Conversely, if the coffee is fine enough and dosed correctly, the same quality can be achieved with little or no tamp!

In talking with some “old school” masters of European coffee experience, men in their 60’s who still have restaurants and coffee bars in Italy and Spain, I noted that agreement between them regarding tamping produced some of the finest expressos and Cappuccinos I ever tasted. They filled the portafilter, and LIGHTLY tamped about 5-10lb pressure and then extracted. It was all one fluid movement of making a coffee. The tamping seemed to be just to settle the grind in the portafilter.

I also am experimenting to see if pre-infusion actually “settles” the coffee before full extraction. Some people have commented that a straight pour without pre-infusion, with or without tamping, can lead to channeling. I have not seen this issue but will continue the research.

Britain’s coffee love affair: by numbers

Britain’s coffee love affair: by numbers

As Costa coffee shop chain owner Whitbread spends £59.5m on a vending machine business to satisfy caffeine addicts in a rush, the latest figures show Britain’s love affair with the black stuff is not running out of steam yet.


£5bn – Value of the UK coffee shop market in 2010

14,022 – Number of coffee shops in Britain

6bn – Number of cups of coffee bought from vending mahcines in Britain each year

12.9pc – Sales growth by branded coffee shop chains in Britain in 2010, including Costa and Starbucks

1,175 – Costa coffee shops in Britain

731 – Starbucks coffee shops in Britain

440 – Caffe Nero coffee shops in Britain

109 – Caffe Ritazza coffee shops in Britain

83 – Coffee Republic coffee shops in Britain

4,645 – Number of branded UK coffee shops at end of 2010

5,719 – Number of branded UK coffee shops forecast for the end of 2013

Figures: Allegra Strategies

History of Coffee in Peru

Peru is located in Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador with a total area of 1,285,220 sq km. Peru’s climate is highly diverse, ranging from tropical in the east to dry desert in the west, from temperate to frigid in the Andes Mountains. The different climates closely match Peru’s primary geographic regions including a western coastal plain (costa), the high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), and eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) 1.


Coffee production came to Peru in the 1700s. After two centuries, the heirloom typica variety still comprises 60 percent of the country’s exports. There are more than 110,000 coffee growers in Peru, most of whom are indigenous to these landscapes and speak Spanish as a second language. The average land-holding farmer lives on two or three hectares, hours away from the comforts of electricity and running water. Peru’s coffee exports account for two percent of both the national economy and the global coffee supply2, Peru is quickly building a global reputation for producing traditionally cultivated, shade grown, high quality Arabica beans.

Peruvian coffee farmers’ landholdings are small, and the country’s typical micro-wet-milling operation is even smaller. From May to September, farmers pick ripe cherries and carry them to hand pulpers and wooden fermentation tanks. This tradition of micro-wet-milling has protected Peru’s water resources from the devastating effects of river-polluting pulping factories. After processing their coffee, most farmers hike their beans by foot or mule into the nearest town—a trip that can take anywhere from thirty minutes to eight hours. On Saturdays, the plaza of the closest town becomes a buying and selling station for the surrounding remote coffee growers. Farmers sell their coffee and buy goods for their homes before heading back up the mountainous foot trails.

An unfortunate–but all too common–experience at these buying and selling plazas is the arrival of only one buyer. This dramatically decreases the price paid to farmers for their coffee. With no personal warehouse space and only unreliable, expensive collective storage in town, farmers generally have no option but to accept lower prices. Buyers in the main city of the region then repeat this process during the week. The more remote the farms, the more times the coffees are mixed and traded before they arrive at the coast. Once there, the coffee is dry-milled and prepared for export. This unorganized trading system and isolation has caused farmers to become estranged from the end beverage that comes from their farms. For many years, growers have worked on a weight/dollar exchange for their coffee in the parchment, completely disconnecting the idea that they produce a beverage that will be enjoyed—or thrown away—based on its quality. Intermediary traders have even been known to increase the weight by throwing sand and water into each bag3.

Fair Trade cooperatives: cultivating alternatives with Peruvian coffee’s futures

During the last decade, Peru’s smallholder cooperatives consolidated their movements and provided a more organized and rewarding opportunity for tens of thousands of smallholders who were once subjected to the exploitive trading practices explained above. An estimated 15 – 25 percent of Peru’s 100,000+ smallholders now belong to cooperative organizations2. These cooperatives have linked with international Fair Trade and organic networks to stimulate their growth. Working together with partners like Equal Exchange, Peruvian smallholder cooperatives quickly became the second largest suppliers of Fair Trade certified coffee after Mexico and one of the world’s top organic producers. The higher prices offered through these certified and specialty markets have strengthened cooperatives and offered at least some price premiums to farmers. The more direct market access has also helped four Fair Trade Certified co-ops establish themselves among Peru’s largest 21 coffee exporters2.

Cooperatives have invested these price premiums and many donations from international development agencies into building infrastructure for improving coffee quality, processing and exporting, training farmers in their transition to certified organic production and social development projects.

The significant differences that farmers experience go well beyond better prices received at the farmgate. The differences are about being organized and developing a collective sense of identity through participation in their cooperatives, about the ability to own and control their means of production, and about the shared learning process through trainings and farmer exchanges. One farmer shares her reflections, “Before there were no trainings. But now they tell us about the roles of men and women. You learn to value yourself. You learn about participation.”2.


  1. Peruvian Coffee: The flavour and aroma of the Andes. Andesa. 16 Aug. 2005.
  2. Walsh, J. 2004 Fair Trade in the Fields: Outcomes for Peruvian Coffee Producers. Masters Thesis. City Planning. MIT, Mass.
  3. O’Keefe, K.C. Jungle Tech. 16 Aug, 2005.
  4. The World Factbook. CIA. 16 Aug. 2005.
  5. “Peru’s Economy.” Travel Blog. 16 Aug. 2005.
  6. “The Economy.” Country Studies. 16 Aug. 2005.
  8. CEPICAFE. (2003) “Liquidacion Campana 2003.”

Indian coffee may brew success with untapped potential

May 6, 2012:

The second-most traded commodity in the world after crude oil, coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in world trade. It is an important source of foreign exchange to producing countries. Its cultivation, processing, trading, transportation and marketing provide employment to more than a hundred million people worldwide. It is one of the most important commodities for many of the least developed economies in Africa.

Considered as the alternative hot beverage of India, coffee is said to have originated in Ethiopia, from where, it spread to Egypt and Yemen. Today, there are two main coffee species cultivated commercially- Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta.


Global production of coffee was estimated to be around 8.36 million tonnes (mt) in 2010 with Brazil accounting for almost 35 per cent of total production as the world’s leading green coffee producer. This is followed by Vietnam (13 per cent), Indonesia (9.6 per cent) and Colombia (6.5 per cent) in 2010.

Arabica coffee is cultivated in Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, and Asia while Robusta coffee is grown in western and central Africa, throughout South-east Asia, and to some extent in Brazil. Major consumers of coffee include the US, the EU nations particularly Germany, France and the UK followed by Brazil, Japan and other countries in Europe and North America.


Production: India is the sixth-largest producer of coffee after Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, and Ethiopia. With 4,04,645 hectares under coffee cultivation, India accounts for 3.8 per cent of total coffee production (3,02,000 tonnes in 2010-11). In India, Karnataka (70 per cent), Kerala (20 per cent) and Tamil Nadu (7 per cent) are the major producers of coffee. Arabica production amounted to 31 per cent of total output, the remaining 69 per cent being contributed by Robusta. In 2010-11, coffee production in Karnataka and Kerala stood at 2,13,780 tonnes and 65,650 tonnes, respectively, while Tamil Nadu produced 16,650 tonnes during the period. Production of coffee, which was highly concentrated in the South, has now extended to non-traditional areas particularly Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and to North East in the recent years to almost 40,000 ha.

Consumption: Coffee has become increasingly popular in India over the last few years. It is no longer a traditional beverage, but positioned as a youthful and trendy beverage. According to the Coffee Board, domestic consumption is increasing 5 to 6 per cent annually, partly due to expansion of the café culture and the spread of the coffee drinking habit throughout India. Coffee consumption is estimated to be 108,000 tonnes (2010). Urban consumption dominates with about 73 per cent of total volumes and the remaining from rural consumption. South India alone consumes nearly 78 per cent of total coffee consumed in India.

Recent Trends: The coffee planting and bearing area in India has shown an upward trend mostly due to expansion of cultivation in non-traditional States. Arabica coffee productivity in the non-traditional areas is reported to be much lower than in the traditional belt (9.2 quintals/ha), which has brought down the overall yield to 8.4 quintals/ha. Compared to an yield of 21 quintals in Vietnam and 13 quintals in Brazil, productivity is low in India on account of limited mechanisation, pest infestation and labour shortage. Higher price realisation during the past three to four years has prompted coffee growers to follow better agronomic practices, supporting higher production. However, labour costs, which account for almost 65 per cent of the cost of coffee cultivation have continued to escalate in the past few years.

Policy: The Indian Government/Coffee Board provides various subsidies, mostly to small and marginal coffee producers to increase production and improve quality. In addition, the Ministry of Commerce has included coffee in the list of products eligible for the duty entitlement passbook (DEPB) scheme and the Vishesh Krishi Upaj Gramodyog Yojana (VKUGY).Total duty credit under the programmes is subject to a maximum of 7.5 per cent. On April 29, 2010, the Finance Minister announced a new Debt Relief Package in Parliament, intended mainly for small coffee growers. Accordingly, 50 per cent of the pre-2002 term loans taken by coffee growers were to be waived, subject to a maximum of Rs 5,00,000 for a farmer.


Globally coffee consumption is expected to grow at 6 per cent annually. Both domestic and international coffee prices hit record highs in calendar year 2011, coupled with all-time high exported volumes. The domestic coffee production is expected to increase at a CAGR of 6.2 per cent for the next three years, while consumption is expected to grow at 6.4 per cent. With coffee outlets set to increase multi-fold in the next 3 years, the coffee industry is likely to continue witnessing similar growth trend in future. India being a minor player in the global market has great potential to improve its market share through higher yields and improved quality. Besides, with domestic consumption being very small when compared to the consumption trend globally, there lies a huge opportunity to expand the market with the help of intensive coffee promotion. At the same time key pressing issues of labour shortage and migration, and tremendous increase in cost of labour are major concern areas for the industry, which are to be critically addressed through effective policy interventions.

Source: YES Bank

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