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Archive for the tag “coffee roaster”

For the home coffee roaster

This is my home roaster. Im about to build it into a moveable trolley, so its the bare bones in this picture.

  • A breadmaker. I stripped it out of its case and control panel. I rewired it so the motor runs continuously when plugged into the mains. When I fit everything into the trolley, I will put a fused switch for it.
  • A heatgun. Nothing fancy with 2 heat settings. They will burn out eventually so do not spend a lot. This is my second gun in 3 years.
  • A digital thermometer. Can also be plugged into a computer for graphing the coffee roast.
  • A digital timer for monitoring the heat rise and setting the hold between first and second crack.
  • Ash can. My new invention. insert the nozzle of a vacuum cleaner into it and use the other hose for sucking out the beans from the bread pan. I then leave the vacuum running for 4 minutes and it extracts all the heat from the beans. Remove the lid, check the beans and bag directly from the container.

Total costs:

Breadmaker (mine was “borrowed” but anywhere from free to whatever you want to pay)

Heat gun: £8-£20. Mine are Ebay specials and £8 a time.

Digital thermometer: Between £10 and £35

Digital timer: £4

Ash Can: Under £19 delivered from Coopers.

I use the house vacuum but will probably buy a used small one for the job.

I use coffee beans from Rave Coffee


Gisuma Red Bourbon

Rising from the aftermath of the terrible wars in Rwanda in the 1990s, The coffee planted has made its mark in the world from being very good to world class. I am always shocked how little is known about the quality, especially the Gisuma Red Bourbon. Gisuma Washing Station is in the Rusizzi district of the western province. This cooperative has 155 members who grow their coffee at an altitude of 1,600 to 1,850 metres above sea level. The Red Bourbon is washed and dried on raised African beds.
Filling your cup with a beautiful bright almost fruit like sweet cleanness with a backdrop of flowers, The coffee has never failed to please even the most critical of tasters.
For me, the balance of this berry is almost perfect.
Roasted just the way I like it at:


Sugar glazing Coffee beans invented in USA

                Old Coffee Roasters       

While researching roaster patents, I ran across this interesting 1886 coffee patent. Be sure and read the reply I received regarding this patent from 1840Coffee, AKA Donald Schoenholt of Gillies Coffee Co., New York. Thank you, Don, for sharing this wonderful historical information on Mr. Arbuckle. 

Richard Hagan


United States Patent Office

John Arbuckle, JR., Allegheny City, Pennsylvania.

Letters Patent No. 73,486, dated January 21, 1868


Improvement in Roasted Coffee.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, John Arbuckle, Jr., of the city and county of Allegheny, in the State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in “Roasted Coffee;” and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof.

The nature of my invention consists in roasting coffee and then coating it with a glutinous or gelatinous matter, for the purpose of retaining the aroma of the coffee, and also act as a clarifying-agent when the ground coffee has been boiled in water.

To enable others skilled in the art of “roasting coffee” to use my invention, I will proceed to describe its operation or preparation.

I take any good article of green coffee, and roast ti by any of the known means. I then cool it as quickly as possible. I then prepare a mixture of the following ingredients, in about the following proportions: One ounce of Irish moss; half an ounce of isinglass; half an ounce of gelatine; one ounce of white sugar; and twenty-four eggs. I boil the Irish moss in a quart of water, and then strain it. I then boil the isinglass and gelatine in a pint of water. I then mix the sugar and eggs well together, and when the mixture of Irish moss, isinglass, gelatine, and water has become cold, I mix the whole of the ingredients into one homogenous compound. I then pour the whole over about one hundred pounds of the roasted coffee, and stir and so manipulate the coffee that each grain will be entirely coated, after the coffee is coated, and the coasting has become dry and hard, which is accomplished by forcing currents of air through it while stirring it, for the purpose of coating it with the glutinous or gelatinous matter described.

I wish it clearly understood that I do not confine myself to the above compound of glutinous matter for coating roasted coffee, for many other compounds may be formed which will accomplish the end desired, to wit, coating roasted coffee in the manner and for the purpose set forth.

What I claim, is-

Coating roasted coffee with any glutinous or gelatinous matter, for the purpose of retaining the aroma of the coffee, and also act as a clarifying-agent, as herein described and set forth.


John Arbuckle, Jr.


James J. Johnston,

A. C. Johnston.


Donald Schoenholt’s reply,

 Mr. John Arbuckle, who went on to become the greatest coffee roaster of his generation and the creator of the first national brand, “ARIOSA,” was also one of the richest men in America during the gilded age of the 1880s and ’90s. Arbuckle Bros. produced ARIOSA, known as “the coffee that won the West,” and also roasted and packed several other popular brands, including their premium YUBAN brand (now owned by Kraft), which was the best selling brand in New York for years.

Arbuckle’s coffee was distributed in the age before lined paper bags, and coffee went stale and rancid pronto.  Coating, or “glazing” as it came to be known, was a way to lengthen its shelf life by keeping air away from the beans.  Many different compounds were used in the coffee trade. Arbuckle Bros. settled on a sugar based glaze.  They became such a prodigious user of sugar that they decided to enter the sugar business rather than give a profit on the huge quantities they needed to others.  The Sugar Trust didn’t like that much and decided to enter the coffee business to spite Arbuckle.  For the better part of the next generation, the Sugar Trust’s LION COFFEE battled it out with Arbuckle’s brands throughout the courts and the cities of the nation.  The first great advertising campaign in history was this coffee war.  After fought to a stand-still, the sugar boys quit the coffee business, and the Arbuckle brothers were triumphant.  They strode upon the national stage until their deaths in the early part of the 20th Century.  Their heirs sold the business to Mr. C.W. Post (of Post Toasties and Postum fame), who was putting together a little company at that time that would be called General Foods.  Mr. Post joined the Arbuckle brands with the other little roaster he had just acquired from the Cheek Neal Coffee Co.; it was called Maxwell House.

With the advent of the Pure Food & Drug Act (1906), and the development of better packaging that retained freshness longer, glazing fell out of fashion.

Sugar glazed beans, now referred to as “torrefaction coffee,” still retain a market in Spain and South America.


P.S.  LION COFFEE went broke eventually and languished in the Ohio court system as just a moldy old file until found by an entrepreneur who arranged with the court to revive the brand name.  It was moved to Hawaii where the lion, after two generations of slumber, roars again as a retailer, roaster and wholesaler of Hawaiian blend coffees.





It will pay you well to keep a small coffee mill in your kitchen, and grind your coffee, just as you use it, one mess at a time. Coffee should not be ground until the coffee-pot is ready to receive it. Coffee will lose more of its strength and aroma, in one hour after being ground, than in six months before being ground. So long as Ariosa remains in the whole berry, our glazing, composed of choice eggs, and pure confectioners sugar, closes the pores of the coffee, and thereby all the original strength and aroma are retained. Ariosa Coffee has, during 25 years, act the standard for all other roasted coffees. So true is this, that other manufactures in recommending their goods, have known no higher praise than to say: “It’s just as good as Arbuckles.”

Roasting at RAVE Coffee.

Rob Hodge of RAVE Coffee is blending two types of beans to make the House blend. Overall time for the Roast is about 16 mins which we have condensed for the video.

Britains Hidden Hobby.

The secret is out. I didnt realise it. Only a few were privvy. It was only by accident I discovered it. Im still reeling from the knowledge. Who would have thought.

More so than America, More so than Europe combined, More so than Australia. The U.K. has a furtive little hobby that no one admits to, certainly does not discuss, and is not mentioned in public. BritishCoffeeScene is going to lift the lid right now.

Home Coffee Roasting. Its a spreading hobby throughout the British Isles. Its true. In talking with Artisan Coffee houses, and doing the sums, I can state that between 35% and 45% of bean sales are the raw green beans!

That means approximately half of all sales from specialist coffee Houses are going to individuals who, in one form or another, roast their own. Yet… there is no mention of it, no discussion, no contact through on line forums, no interchange with the supplier about roasting. The beans are sold, the beans arrive at the solitary destination and then… silence. A little while later, the coffee house gets another innocuous order for some more green beans. Noting that the customer has previously bought green beans, the supplier will include a little information pack with references to online forums that discuss coffee roasting, or offer for the customer to take advantage of advice the coffee house gives freely, and…… nothing.

Britain, what gives? Coffee roasting is a proud and noble art. It contains elements of innovation in equipment making, it requires a modicum of skill to bring all the elements together, and it has the capacity to be turned into a full scale home roasting production utilising computers, logs, thermometers, roast times and bean preferences. Around the world, there a clubs and chat boards and people who have never seen each who exchange information and equipment and test results. In Britain? there is a just a request to purchase green beans on the Coffee House Paypal site or Amazon ordering. It stops there.

Although I have use of a professional Toper roaster, what do I use for small batch testing? I have small home made hot air units. I have air guns. I have Stainless steel bowls and wooden spoons. I have adapted breadmakers. I have popcorn poppers. I have Halogen cookers. I have heavy pans. Ive used a lot of the commercially available home roasters too.

My favourite home roaster is a Russell Hobbs “Breadman” breadmaker. I use it weekly making a kilo of coffee in 18 minutes including pre heat time. This is my own machine with a test lid of 2 nonstick roasting pans cut down to size, with the viewing tempered glass sandwiched between them and pop riveted to hold. I drilled the hole tight for the air gun and later will add another hole for a chaff removal system Ive thought of. I will be making a more professional lid for this once my testing is complete with this prototype. I have a the unit linked to my computer via a thermometer.

So why dont I just spend a couple of thousand pounds or more on a “mini” professional system? First, I dont want to. Second, for less than 60 smackers, with this setup, I have the ability to produce equal if not better roasted coffee than most large scale coffee houses.

If you have a computer, and purchase an inexpensive Victor 86c thermometer..and couple it to an amazing FREE software for Roast logging and charting (No, Im not going to tell you where it is unless you come out of hiding and ask for it!)

Perhaps when you home roasters realise its Ok to come out of the closet, and that what you do is fine and wonderful and that there are some of us out here who want to share and learn from each other, you might join in some discussions and forum groups to further information.









When you finish your Roasting. Your coffee should look like this and taste amazing. You will never settle for less.



RAVE Coffee. Unit 7, Stirling Works, Love Lane, Cirencester, GL7 1YG

 Coffee Roasting was not something Rob Hodge ever envisaged in his future. After his marriage to Vikki in 2002, Rob and new wife spent their honeymoon in Australia and developed a love for the country during their stay there. When they returned to the U.K. and went back to their industry Jobs, Rob in Telecoms and Vikki in I.T. they never forgot the country of their dreams.

Working hard and saving money, they finally managed to obtain the elusive visa and moved to Sydney in the late 2000’s. Vikki enrolled as a student in catering and worked her way through the rigorous and tough Australian college system which culminated in her becoming a professional Chef.

Rob and Vikki, always being interested in coffee as a drink, were amazed to find a really outstanding and mature coffee “scene” in Australia, with some of the most knowledgable people on the doorstep.  After discussing between themselves, Rob made the decision to study the subject of coffee making in depth, and looked around for a suitable school/teacher.

 It wasn’t long before the name of Tony Vitello popped up. Now Tony has been around coffee for all of his life and has an unsurpassed reputation as a teacher. Tony is a founder of the Australian Coffee Gang and his successful students are sought after for job placements.

Rob sought out Tony and was accepted on his course. By applying himself diligently, Rob soaked up all the information he could from the Coffee Gang teacher and practiced, practiced and practiced.

 Finishing his professional course, Rob sought more learning and worked with Rob and Dean from the Mona Vale based ROC Café.

At the same time, Rob began a detailed background investigation into roasting proper and worked with some established artisan Roasters. It was here that Rob began to develop a love for the process of taking coffee from its raw state, and roasting it so as to extract its full potential in the cup.

 In the meantime, Rob and Vikki purchased and fitted out a coffee van and serviced the North beaches of Sydney.

Rob was invited to be the only Barista of choice at the Hyde Park event of Australia Day in 2010. Rob served over 7 kilos of coffee between 7am till 2pm on that day.

Robs professional skills continued to be noted, and in February, one month later, he was invited to be barista at TAFF College and powerhouse museum, serving the entire campus.

Moving on with life, a young family, external circumstances dictated that a return to the U.K. was required. Heartbreaking as it was in leaving their beloved Sydney, Rob and Vikki sold the profitable coffee van business. Rob threw himself into intensive final training and knowledge gathering regarding roasting and all things production.

Upon their return to the U.K. The Hodge family ordered a professional Coffee Roasting machine and set up RAVE coffee immediately.  Buying best green coffee from reputable sources only, they worked night and day to produce the Roast profiles for each varietal that Rob had worked so hard on. Working to a strict business plan, and roasting ONLY to orders for best freshness… and working with the worlds leading online purchase company, RAVE coffee has become one, if not THE most noted artisan coffee roasters the UK today.

When you buy a bag of coffee from RAVE, you have the collective knowledge and experience from coffee masters all over the world. No piece of information has ever been discarded by Rob, and only integrated into his practice when he has tested it for himself. Buy RAVE. Taste the difference.

Rave Coffee, Unit 7, Stirling Works, Love Lane, Cirencester, GL7 1YG

For all enquiries:


Office: 01453 832616

Mobile: 07833 532942

The JAVA Coffee House. 1 Charles Street Newport Gwent.

  Neatly off the main Drag in Newport town Centre is a traditional Welsh coffee shop. (In featuring the JAVA coffee house, British Coffee Scene is leaving behind the show and display of Baristas at work.) There is no atmosphere of espresso presentation or the fancy latte art so reminiscent of High street chains. (A short walk to the main street will allow you to sample all the popular chains and the variants they produce.) Should you go with the short trip, you will miss out on some genuinely good coffee.

 Alun Jones, a native of Newport, a chef by profession, and his wife Helen made the decision to run their own business a few years ago. When the opportunity presented itself in 2010, they moved into Charles Street and took hold of their dream.  A bit of a traditionalist, and a man filled with passion for good coffee and food, Alun decided to produce excellent home cooking with his own expertise. Looking in the glass display, I could see plate after plate of creations, all made by him, and with that Welsh heritage in cooking looking back at me. While we were talking, Helen plated up some fresh off the griddle Welsh cakes that Alun had just made. They sell hundreds of these every month in the coffee shop and the demand is growing.

 I wanted to sample a cup of J.C.H. coffee and asked for a flat white. The machine they use is a San Marco twin station with quite a few years on it, but thanks to a loving (read expensive) complete restoration, it is as good as any modern machine on the market. In listening to the tone of the milk being heated, there was no lack of pressure in that baby.

 I watched the pour for my coffee and counted a 26 second total time including a pre infusion for a double. The pour itself was of an excellent quality with rich reddish brown crema filling the cup. The milk is whole milk and steamed a touch hotter (149F) because Welsh people like hot coffee. In tasting the coffee, There is a delicious sense of actually drinking a coffee that is rich and full without the, sadly normal, burnt taste of the chains. The depth and reach of the coffee infused the milk throughout. Now, as a coffee roaster myself, I was intrigued that the quality of the coffee was so high, and asked where he got the beans from. James gourmet coffee from Ross- on- Wye. An excellent job on the roasting Peter James.

 Alun and Helen are not trying to out barista anyone. They are concentrating on the original coffee house theme as developed in the British Isles a few centuries ago. A good coffee (or tea if prefered), a savoury or sweet cake, or indeed an excellent sandwich or light meal. Try the Brie and Bacon with Cranberry Baguette. Oh my gosh.. amazing. In my travels around the British Isles, it is getting harder to find the smaller, but determined, coffee houses of yesteryear. This is somewhere I could bring my family, and have all ages catered for without breaking the bank or be confused by the multitude of coffee variations on the market today. I noticed that the clientele of the morning were all greeted by name and drinks were prepared without asking. Alun said that they have a large repeat business which he puts down to the fact of service at the table and the staff waiting on the needs of the customer so the customer can enjoy themselves and know their wants will be met immediately.

Alun and Helen are genuinely warm and caring people people. Nothing is too much trouble for them. Alun shared with me that he is now going to concentrate on making more traditional Welsh foods and fancies. I see only good things on the horizon.

 Before I left, I was given the recipe for his famous Welsh cake. He doesnt mind sharing anything if you ask. The recipe is only half the answer he said with a twinkle in his eye..”being able to cook it like I do is the secret”.

1 lb self raising flour

8 oz butter

4 oz sugar

4 oz currants

2 eggs

Griddle till done.

How important is tamping pressure?

It is taught universally that 30lb (15 kg) of pressure is the optimum amount to compact coffee in the portafilter, so as to facilitate the correct denseness of the coffee for extraction. As a person who leans toward scientific proof, I did some research on the subject.

Tamping itself, is a method of compacting coffee as closely together as possible to remove air pockets or channels within the plug. Once tamped, the compacted coffee within the portafilter can be inverted to show its adhesion to each other facilitated by the force of pressure. Once the portafilter is inserted in the grouphead, and water is added, either by pre-infusion or by a straight pour, the tamped coffee loses pressure integrity immediately. Even lightly wetting a tight tamp will negate the effect.

Most modern coffee machines force water through at, give or take, 9 bars of pressure. If you work it out, that is 15-16 times greater than a 30lb tamp. Bearing in mind that a 30lb tamp has already lost its integrity and hold when initially wetted, the coffee itself during extraction, is no longer under tamp pressure, and will also be under much less integrity and way below pump pressure.

So what can we summarize from these observations? Firstly, a lot of barista’s out there are making fine coffee and NOT doing everything by the barista’s bible. I guess the obvious answer is that the coffee machine pump normalizes a poor tamp, or indeed, will pressurize the water through the grinds regardless of the tamp. I ran a test over 2 days of approximately 80 extractions, and found that there was a more basic component to good pours than tamp.

Grind density and dose size.

Make sure the basket is at the correct level for coffee grinds. Make sure the grind is fine enough to force the water through the coffee at the best rate. My two best pours were when the coffee was fine enough and I applied the tamp weight alone and swirled for a light polish with no added pressure!

It would appear then, that if a barista can apply the same pressure consistently to a correctly dialed in grind, that the coffee will be consistent for quality. Conversely, if the coffee is fine enough and dosed correctly, the same quality can be achieved with little or no tamp!

In talking with some “old school” masters of European coffee experience, men in their 60’s who still have restaurants and coffee bars in Italy and Spain, I noted that agreement between them regarding tamping produced some of the finest expressos and Cappuccinos I ever tasted. They filled the portafilter, and LIGHTLY tamped about 5-10lb pressure and then extracted. It was all one fluid movement of making a coffee. The tamping seemed to be just to settle the grind in the portafilter.

I also am experimenting to see if pre-infusion actually “settles” the coffee before full extraction. Some people have commented that a straight pour without pre-infusion, with or without tamping, can lead to channeling. I have not seen this issue but will continue the research.

For over twenty years, I’ve longed to get my hands on a Whitmee coffee roaster


For over twenty years, I’ve longed to get my hands on a Whitmee coffee roaster. Due to their extreme scarcity and cost – whenever one did come onto the market in the UK, it carried a price beyond my means – the dream eluded me. I contented myself instead by diligently researching and collecting heavy-duty ‘Monitor’ roasters built here in the U.S. and amazing open-drum and open-flame ‘Uno’ roasters manufactured in England.

Why Whitmee? I fell in love with their design – especially their gothic “Bishop’s Hat” profile, and their über-cool cast iron combination charge/discharge chute that projects out and downward from their face plate like a ski-jump – many years ago after seeing my first photograph of a Whitmee coffee roaster. Taken somewhere in Britain, and first published in 1922 in William H. Ukers’s seminal book “All About Coffee”, the photo shows one of the larger Whitmee Simplex roasters (their 168 lb batch machine) in action.

love the roaster chap standing proudly next to his belt-driven Whitmee machine, with his working-class ‘scally’ cap perched squarely on his head and his white shirt and tie protected by a long shop coat – sleeves rolled up and ready for action. (You have to respect a man wearing a hat and tie whilst roasting coffee – very proper and professional, and very British.) What I wouldn’t give to be able to chat with him for a few hours about roasting coffee with his Whitmee – ideally over a pint or two of ale at his favorite pub!

I discovered my Whitmee last winter, while searching on-line in the UK for interesting roasters. The fellow that was selling it had a couple of roasters for sale; an older, mid-sized Probat that wound up being acquired by a roaster in Canada, and the smaller Whitmee shop roaster that I eventually acquired. I contacted the owner, and grew quite excited when I saw the pictures he e-mailed me. I learned the roaster wasn’t currently operational because of a fire, but otherwise he claimed it was in pretty good shape, relatively speaking (aside from someone painting it a vibrant – and completely inauthentic – shade of blue at some point in its past). He believed the roaster to be from the 1960s, but I suspected upon seeing the photos that it was much older, as its splay-legged style and Gothic-arched design resembled the post-WWI Simplex-class Whitmee roasters I had seen in old photos, not the Romanesque-arched Whitmee roasters I’d seen from the post-WWII era through the 1960s, after which the business appears to have folded.

There was one other clue about the age of the roaster in the photos that the English fellow sent me, which I’m not sure many other people would have discerned. His photos showed that his Whitmee’s drum was not driven by a V-belt connecting a pulley on the drum to a smaller pulley on the shaft of an electric motor, as I would have expected in a machine from the 1960s. Instead, it was powered by a complex off-set chain-drive system, with a huge circular sprocket on the back of the drum that struck me by its resemblance to the chain-drive systems once common on pre-WWII motorcycles, such as the American-built Indian or the British-built BSA and Norton bikes. But what was this chain-drive – common on early motorcycles – doing on this coffee roaster?

The answer I arrived at actually gave additional support of my supposition regarding the early post-WWI vintage of this roaster. In my research into Whitmee (or, more properly, ‘The Whitmee Engineering Co., Ltd.’, located at the ‘Alecto Works, Grove Road, Balham, London’), I learned something very interesting. I’d discovered that the Whitmee company in the 1920s and 1930s – in addition to manufacturing coffee roasters and tea equipment – also manufactured a line of touring and sporting motorcycles that were sold under the brand-name ‘Alecto’! How crazy was that?! ‘Today, lads, we’re assembling coffee roasters, but tomorrow come ready to build motorcycles!’ But with some further investigation, it turned out that it wasn’t such an unusual idea after all. I uncovered the fact that in that era there were literally dozens of brands of motorcycles produced by many different manufacturing companies in Britain – all rivals for a strong domestic market for ‘cycles, plus a lucrative export market that existed at that time throughout the British Empire for inexpensive transportation. So perhaps designing and building coffee roasters and motorcycles with the same team of engineers and fabricators under the same roof wasn’t as crazy as it sounds, being instead simply a prudent diversification of manufacturing resources in uncertain times – while incidentally creating another puzzle for a steampunk roaster enthusiast to try and solve someday.

British Roasting Machines


I’m the first to admit that I’m passionate about coffee – and in particular, coffee roasters. That probably explains why I decided years ago to collect coffee roasters, and now find myself owning seven of them (not counting my three sample roasters, of course…they’re so petite!) in sizes ranging from a husky half-bagger all the way down to a diminutive three-pound countertop beauty.

Some guys collect cars. I round-up roasters. Same disease, different symptoms.

My current project is an extremely rare, British-built “Whitmee” shop roaster from the late 1910s or early 1920s. Discovered languishing in a junk-filled farmer’s shed outside of a small village east of London the roaster was thought by its UK owner to have a seven pound per batch capacity. However, after getting it to the States, taking it apart and examining it, I have discovered it is actually a much rarer – and more desirable – 14 pound per batch machine! In fact, it’s only the second 14 pounder I have ever seen anywhere in the world, and without a doubt the only Whitmee of any size in the United States.

The old Whitmee roaster – part of their Simplex-class of roasters, which ranged in batch size from 7 pounds to 224 pounds – is a beautiful piece of early 20th century industrial engineering and design. With a style that is almost steampunk in character, the roaster is built of cast iron and hand-shaped steel. Nothing digital or plastic here, thank you very much. I suspect roasting on it will be like driving a fully restored old-school stick-shift pickup truck. The kind of truck that turns heads, and makes you jealous of the guy behind the wheel. Minimal controls, maximum appeal.

My Whitmee roaster is a legacy of the era when Great Britain had few rivals anywhere in the world in building machinery that excelled in both form and function. The roaster features a perforated drum with the gas burner mounted inside – a style of roaster radically different than those built today. “Direct flame” roasters were nearly universal in Europe and the United States in the years between WWI and WWII, but went out of style because of their low fuel efficiency and the extensive training needed to operate them properly – not because their coffees didn’t taste good!

Led by the Jabez Burns Company and their “Thermalo” class of roasters, “direct flame” roasters such as the Whitmee were eventually replaced with “indirect flame” machines featuring solid drums instead of perforated, with the gas burners moved from inside the drum to underneath it. Less cost to roast because of greater fuel efficiency, and less chance of burning the coffee. However, as one of the few people in the country to have an intimate familiarity with both “direct flame” and “indirect flame” roasted coffees, I mourn the passage of these great machines. When operated by someone that really knows what they’re doing, the flavor of “direct flame” roasted coffees can be incredible, with flavors and aromas seldom found in conventionally roasted coffees.


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