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Using Sight to Determine Degree of Roast

https://www.sweetmarias.com/library/content/using-sight-determine-degree-roast

SweetMarias is one, if not THE premier USA independent supplier for green coffee and coffee tools. They are a bunch of dedicated people doing their own thing and distributing information freely.

 

Color is just one of the ways to determine degree of roast. By itself, it is of limited use. When complemented by the audible cues (first and second crack) and the aromas of the roast process, it is extremely informative . Here is a You Tube video showing the color changes that occur during roasting –

Degree of Roast, Temperature, Description

This coffee was roasted on my Probat 12 kilo so I could take advantage of the sample trier. Ignore the times, and take the temperatures as a ballpark figure.

The important thing is here is to see the transformation the coffee goes through as it roasts and what look, colorbean sizeand surface texture, corresponds to the degree of roast. ***(see note from home roaster George Steinert below).

Roasting is more about exceptions than rules. I have this page about bean color vs. ground coffee color that might be helpful. So get to it.

(click on preview for full size image)


Note: The above image is not the exact same beans pictured below. The gray strips on either side of this image are a photographic 18% gray card.

1. Green unroasted coffee 0:00 – 75 f

This is a wet processed, Central American coffee, a accidental blend I have had sitting around. Each photo here are different coffee seeds from the batch I roasted sosize and shape will vary seed to seed.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

2. Starting to pale 4:00 – 270 f

Drum roasters take a long time to transfer heat to coffee so there is little change in the first few minutes. In an air roaster coffee gets to this stage so much faster because of the efficient heat transference of the rapid moving air stream, so the whole warm-up phase can be as fast as two minutes.


Odd looking seeds – the near one might be a Kona Typica and the farther one perhaps the traditional Bourbon cultivar or Mundo Novo. Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

3. Early yellow stage 6:00 – 327 f

At this point the coffee is still losing water in the form of steam and no physical expansion of the bean has taken place. The coffee has a very humid, hay-like smell at this point. All of these warm-up stages leading up to first crack are part of an endothermic process, as the coffee takes on heat, leading to the first audible roast reaction, the exothermic 1st crack.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

4. Yellow-Tan stage 6:30 – 345 f

The roast is starting to assume a browner color, and a marbling appearance is starting to emerge. No bean expansion yet. The first “toasty” smells (toasted grain, bread) can be detected, and a bit less wet, humid air coming off the coffee. Note that some coffees turn a brighter and more distinct yellow at this time, such as Costa Rican and Mexican coffees.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

5. Light Brown stage 8:00 – 370 f

First crack is drawing near at this point. Some bean expansion is visible as the central crack in the coffee has opened slightly. The coffee releases some silverskin or chaff.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

6. Brown Stage 9:00 – 393 f

Now we are right at the door of first crack. The coffee has browned considerably, which is partly due to browning reactions from sugars, but largely due to another browning reaction called the Maillard Reaction (which also is responsible for browning of cooked beef!)


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

7. 1st crack begins 9:20 – 401 f

At this point, the very first popping sounds of the First Crack can be heard. This sound can be similar to popcorn pops (in distinction to the sound of the Second Crack, which has a shallower sound, more like a snap). At the point of first crack the internal bean temperature would be around 356 f.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

8. 1st crack under way 10:00 – 415 f

As first crack continues the coffee still appears mottled and uneven in color. The coffee starts expanding in size and shows visible cracks. The amount of chaff in the crease of the seed is noticeably less.

First crack is an exothermic reaction; the beans are giving off heat. But then the beans quickly become endothermic, meaning that a roaster that is not adding enough heat to the process will stall the roast at this point …not a good thing. Once caramelization begins (340-400 degrees internal bean temperature) a roast that looses heat will taste “baked”, perhaps due to the disruption on long-chain polymerization. The melting point of sucrose is 370 f and corresponds to this window of temperatures when caramelization begins.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

9. 1st crack finishes 10:40 – 426 f

This is considered a City Roast. First crack is done and the roast is stopped.

Notice the bean surface is smoother somewhat from expansion but still has darker marks in the coffee, like a finely etched pattern. The edges of the seed are still fairly hard. At this point the coffee starts giving off carbon dioxide.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

10. City+ roast 11:05 435f

City+ means the coffee has cleared first crack, and time is allowed for an even bean surface appearance to develop.

There are only very small changes between the #9 picture above and this one, notably the edges of the bean are a bit softer. The whole stage between the first and second crack is a short period ( 15 to 30 seconds) where a lot is happening chemically to the beans. The coffee gains heat once again until its woody cellulose matrix, the bean structure itself, begins to fracture … that is, the Second Crack.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo. Check here for the whole bean vs. ground coffee comparison photos or a Macro photos of a single City + bean.

11. Full City roast 11:30 – 444 f
On the verge of 2nd crack

This image represents a Full City roast; the coffee is on the verge of 2nd crack. This might be hard to judge the first few times you roast; after a while, you will have a feel for it. The beans are have a slight sheen of oil and the edges are softer.

The internal bean temperature for second crack normally is 446 degrees farenheit. But in fact second crack is a bit less predictable than first crack, in my experience. Why? It could be due to the fact that first crack is the physical expansion of the coffee seed as water and carbon dioxide split and CO2 outgassing starts. Second Crack is the physical fracturing of the celllose matrix of the coffee. This matrix is both organized cellulose that reacts readily to heat, and not-so-organized cellulose that does not. Since every coffee is physically different in size and density due to the cultivar, origin, altitude, etc., it make sense that the particular cell matrix is different too, and not as universally consistent.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo Check here for the whole bean vs. ground coffee comparison photos or a Macro photo of a single Full City bean

12. Full City+ roast 11:50 – 454 f
First audible snaps of 2nd crack

The darker side of a Full City roast is Full City +, where the coffee has barely entered 2nd crack. A few snaps are heard, and the roast is then stopped. Second crack may continue into the cooling phase – this is called “coasting”. The more effective and rapid your cooling – the better your ability to stop the roast at the degree you want.

Compare the full size images from the Full City roast and this one, and I think it is easy to see a difference. Well, maybe not easy, but the Full City+ roast is a bit fuller, more small cracks on the face (or flat side) of the bean.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo or
a Macro photo of a single Full City + bean

13. Vienna – Light French roast12:15 – 465 f
2nd crack is under way
(This is my darkest espresso roast)

The Vienna stage (also called Continental) to Light French stage is where you begin to find Origin Character eclipsed by Roast Character. A dark or heavy roast is at odds with buying coffee for its distinct origin qualities. Dark roast coffees tend to taste more like each other – as the differences due to distinct origins are obscured by the carbony roast flavors. Nontheless, some coffees are excellent at this stage (our Puro Scuro blend is engineered for this roast range).

By the way; Espresso is not a roast. But Northern Italian style espresso is usually roasted to 440 – 446 internal bean temperature. Southern Italian (Scura) is generally a Light French Roast or a tad darker.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo. Check here for the whole bean vs. ground coffee comparison photos or a macro photo of a single French roast bean.

14. Full French roast 12:40 – 474 f
2nd crack is very rapid, nearing its end.

Sugars are heavily caramelized (read as burned) and are degraded; the woody bean structure is carbonizing and the seed continues to expand and loose mass. The body of the resulting cup will be thinner/lighter as the aromatic compounds, oils, and soluble solids are being burned out of the coffee and rising up to fill your house with smoke. 474 is well beyond any roast I do on the Probat. I will go as high as 465 on a couple blends, and that’s my limit.

Notice how fast and dramatic the change is from the previous photo – all that happened in less than 30 seconds!


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

15. Fully carbonized 13:00 – 486 f
Some call this Italian or Spanish roast, an insult to either!

At this stage, the coffee can be over 25% ash; it is carbonized, dead, charcoal.


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo

16. Imminent fire … 13:30 – 497 f

This bean is right at the verge of fire – in fact you can actually start a fire with a large batch once you dump the coffee out of the roast drum into the cool tray. The sudden rush of oxygen might be the needed ingredient for cafe del fuego. Kids, grab your marshmallows! Hope you like ’em smokey!

Needless to say, this roast level is full-on carbon and you can write your name with a coffee bean. The bean size here is smaller that photo 15 due to the randomness of the seeds selected to photograph – coffee does not get smaller at this stage…


Click on image for large photo, or here for multi-bean photo
***Note from George Steinert, home roaster: “I see a lot of new users of the iRoast2 struggling to make sense of roast levels.  I have been using the iR2 since February.  I got the best success when I added the digital thermometer with thermocouple probe (both from SM) and condensed the well-documented “degree of roast” information on the SM web site into a one page chart (below).  By using the temps on the chart (as measured with the thermocouple planted in the bean mass) as a “guide” and when combining that with actual experience of hearing the cracks (when they can be heard through the fan noise), the color, the smell, and the time (when using a consistent load of green beans), I have had very predictable results.  I continue to use the chart as my baseline of understanding when roasting with the RK drum which I started using in June.  I reference the start and end of first crack to tell me how the roast is progressing.  After a while, the aroma becomes a factor.  About 60-90 seconds before first crack begins, I swear I can tell it’s coming because of a characteristic aroma.  Primarily I use the sounds of the crack(s) and secondarily, the time.  With the iRoast2, the temp from the thermocouple gives a pretty reliable indication of where they are in the roasting process…given some flexibility regarding start and end of first crack depending on the type of beans.  With the iRoast, you also have the helpful cues of color and seeing what’s happening on the surface of the bean.  Users should note that First Crack is not going to necessarily begin when your thermocouple hits 401 degrees F nor end when it hits 426 F but after you’ve done a few dozen roasts you will get the feel for how to overlay the progress of the roast onto the temperatures you are reading.

George Steinert’s Degree of Roast/Temperature chart:

Degree of Roast Temp
Green Unroasted 75
Starting to pale 270
Early yellow 327
Yellow-Tan 345
Light Brown 370
Brown 393
1st Crack Begins 401
1st Crack Under Way 415
City Roast 426
City+ 435
Full City 446
Full City+ 454
Vienna (Light French) 465
Full French 474
Fully Carbonized 486
Immanent Fire 497

Please note that both Tom and George emphasize that temperature alone will NOT determine degree of roast. Each roaster is different and different beans roast slightly differently as well. All the information on this page is to be take together to help determine degree of roast – no one element (appearance, sound, temperature, etc) can determine degree of roast. Most importantly – TASTE THE COFFEE – and see what that tells you about how it roasted.

Note about High Altitude Roasting
Having lived my entire life at or near sea level (Chicago, Boston, Ohio, Oakland), I may be chromosomally incapable of understanding the effects of high altitude or cooking or roasting. But I did want to make a note to pass on what seems to be the collective wisdom on high altitude home roasting, which is that in general you will see the roast happen more quickly, at a lower temperature. This is most true in small convection roasters, like a popper, or Fresh Roast or i-Roast, but also occurs in conduction roasting. So expect to adjust roast times accordingly. If you can control the temperature on the roaster at all, adjust target temperatures downward by 20 to 30 degrees.

Here is a representative image I took of the Agtron Roast Color Tiles, and might give you a basica idea of the color scale. There is a bit of glare on the left side though (most visibile on Agrton 45). Since this is such an approximation and the appearance depends so much on monitor calibration, etc, I am not going to put a ton of work into this … I am working on a better method of sharing these roast colors information.

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Sugar glazing Coffee beans invented in USA

                Old Coffee Roasters       
 

While researching roaster patents, I ran across this interesting 1886 coffee patent. Be sure and read the reply I received regarding this patent from 1840Coffee, AKA Donald Schoenholt of Gillies Coffee Co., New York. Thank you, Don, for sharing this wonderful historical information on Mr. Arbuckle. 

Richard Hagan

 

United States Patent Office

John Arbuckle, JR., Allegheny City, Pennsylvania.

Letters Patent No. 73,486, dated January 21, 1868

 

Improvement in Roasted Coffee.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, John Arbuckle, Jr., of the city and county of Allegheny, in the State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in “Roasted Coffee;” and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof.

The nature of my invention consists in roasting coffee and then coating it with a glutinous or gelatinous matter, for the purpose of retaining the aroma of the coffee, and also act as a clarifying-agent when the ground coffee has been boiled in water.

To enable others skilled in the art of “roasting coffee” to use my invention, I will proceed to describe its operation or preparation.

I take any good article of green coffee, and roast ti by any of the known means. I then cool it as quickly as possible. I then prepare a mixture of the following ingredients, in about the following proportions: One ounce of Irish moss; half an ounce of isinglass; half an ounce of gelatine; one ounce of white sugar; and twenty-four eggs. I boil the Irish moss in a quart of water, and then strain it. I then boil the isinglass and gelatine in a pint of water. I then mix the sugar and eggs well together, and when the mixture of Irish moss, isinglass, gelatine, and water has become cold, I mix the whole of the ingredients into one homogenous compound. I then pour the whole over about one hundred pounds of the roasted coffee, and stir and so manipulate the coffee that each grain will be entirely coated, after the coffee is coated, and the coasting has become dry and hard, which is accomplished by forcing currents of air through it while stirring it, for the purpose of coating it with the glutinous or gelatinous matter described.

I wish it clearly understood that I do not confine myself to the above compound of glutinous matter for coating roasted coffee, for many other compounds may be formed which will accomplish the end desired, to wit, coating roasted coffee in the manner and for the purpose set forth.

What I claim, is-

Coating roasted coffee with any glutinous or gelatinous matter, for the purpose of retaining the aroma of the coffee, and also act as a clarifying-agent, as herein described and set forth.

 

John Arbuckle, Jr.

Witnesses:

James J. Johnston,

A. C. Johnston.

 

Donald Schoenholt’s reply,

 Mr. John Arbuckle, who went on to become the greatest coffee roaster of his generation and the creator of the first national brand, “ARIOSA,” was also one of the richest men in America during the gilded age of the 1880s and ’90s. Arbuckle Bros. produced ARIOSA, known as “the coffee that won the West,” and also roasted and packed several other popular brands, including their premium YUBAN brand (now owned by Kraft), which was the best selling brand in New York for years.

Arbuckle’s coffee was distributed in the age before lined paper bags, and coffee went stale and rancid pronto.  Coating, or “glazing” as it came to be known, was a way to lengthen its shelf life by keeping air away from the beans.  Many different compounds were used in the coffee trade. Arbuckle Bros. settled on a sugar based glaze.  They became such a prodigious user of sugar that they decided to enter the sugar business rather than give a profit on the huge quantities they needed to others.  The Sugar Trust didn’t like that much and decided to enter the coffee business to spite Arbuckle.  For the better part of the next generation, the Sugar Trust’s LION COFFEE battled it out with Arbuckle’s brands throughout the courts and the cities of the nation.  The first great advertising campaign in history was this coffee war.  After fought to a stand-still, the sugar boys quit the coffee business, and the Arbuckle brothers were triumphant.  They strode upon the national stage until their deaths in the early part of the 20th Century.  Their heirs sold the business to Mr. C.W. Post (of Post Toasties and Postum fame), who was putting together a little company at that time that would be called General Foods.  Mr. Post joined the Arbuckle brands with the other little roaster he had just acquired from the Cheek Neal Coffee Co.; it was called Maxwell House.

With the advent of the Pure Food & Drug Act (1906), and the development of better packaging that retained freshness longer, glazing fell out of fashion.

Sugar glazed beans, now referred to as “torrefaction coffee,” still retain a market in Spain and South America.

i840Coffee

P.S.  LION COFFEE went broke eventually and languished in the Ohio court system as just a moldy old file until found by an entrepreneur who arranged with the court to revive the brand name.  It was moved to Hawaii where the lion, after two generations of slumber, roars again as a retailer, roaster and wholesaler of Hawaiian blend coffees.

DNS

1800’S ARBUCKLE BROS. TRADE CARD * COLUMBIA

  

GRIND YOUR COFFEE AT HOME

It will pay you well to keep a small coffee mill in your kitchen, and grind your coffee, just as you use it, one mess at a time. Coffee should not be ground until the coffee-pot is ready to receive it. Coffee will lose more of its strength and aroma, in one hour after being ground, than in six months before being ground. So long as Ariosa remains in the whole berry, our glazing, composed of choice eggs, and pure confectioners sugar, closes the pores of the coffee, and thereby all the original strength and aroma are retained. Ariosa Coffee has, during 25 years, act the standard for all other roasted coffees. So true is this, that other manufactures in recommending their goods, have known no higher praise than to say: “It’s just as good as Arbuckles.”

Roasting at RAVE Coffee.

Rob Hodge of RAVE Coffee is blending two types of beans to make the House blend. Overall time for the Roast is about 16 mins which we have condensed for the video.

RAVE Coffee. Unit 7, Stirling Works, Love Lane, Cirencester, GL7 1YG

 Coffee Roasting was not something Rob Hodge ever envisaged in his future. After his marriage to Vikki in 2002, Rob and new wife spent their honeymoon in Australia and developed a love for the country during their stay there. When they returned to the U.K. and went back to their industry Jobs, Rob in Telecoms and Vikki in I.T. they never forgot the country of their dreams.

Working hard and saving money, they finally managed to obtain the elusive visa and moved to Sydney in the late 2000’s. Vikki enrolled as a student in catering and worked her way through the rigorous and tough Australian college system which culminated in her becoming a professional Chef.

Rob and Vikki, always being interested in coffee as a drink, were amazed to find a really outstanding and mature coffee “scene” in Australia, with some of the most knowledgable people on the doorstep.  After discussing between themselves, Rob made the decision to study the subject of coffee making in depth, and looked around for a suitable school/teacher.

 It wasn’t long before the name of Tony Vitello popped up. Now Tony has been around coffee for all of his life and has an unsurpassed reputation as a teacher. Tony is a founder of the Australian Coffee Gang and his successful students are sought after for job placements.

Rob sought out Tony and was accepted on his course. By applying himself diligently, Rob soaked up all the information he could from the Coffee Gang teacher and practiced, practiced and practiced.

 Finishing his professional course, Rob sought more learning and worked with Rob and Dean from the Mona Vale based ROC Café.

At the same time, Rob began a detailed background investigation into roasting proper and worked with some established artisan Roasters. It was here that Rob began to develop a love for the process of taking coffee from its raw state, and roasting it so as to extract its full potential in the cup.

 In the meantime, Rob and Vikki purchased and fitted out a coffee van and serviced the North beaches of Sydney.

Rob was invited to be the only Barista of choice at the Hyde Park event of Australia Day in 2010. Rob served over 7 kilos of coffee between 7am till 2pm on that day.

Robs professional skills continued to be noted, and in February, one month later, he was invited to be barista at TAFF College and powerhouse museum, serving the entire campus.

Moving on with life, a young family, external circumstances dictated that a return to the U.K. was required. Heartbreaking as it was in leaving their beloved Sydney, Rob and Vikki sold the profitable coffee van business. Rob threw himself into intensive final training and knowledge gathering regarding roasting and all things production.

Upon their return to the U.K. The Hodge family ordered a professional Coffee Roasting machine and set up RAVE coffee immediately.  Buying best green coffee from reputable sources only, they worked night and day to produce the Roast profiles for each varietal that Rob had worked so hard on. Working to a strict business plan, and roasting ONLY to orders for best freshness… and working with the worlds leading online purchase company, RAVE coffee has become one, if not THE most noted artisan coffee roasters the UK today.

When you buy a bag of coffee from RAVE, you have the collective knowledge and experience from coffee masters all over the world. No piece of information has ever been discarded by Rob, and only integrated into his practice when he has tested it for himself. Buy RAVE. Taste the difference.

Rave Coffee, Unit 7, Stirling Works, Love Lane, Cirencester, GL7 1YG

For all enquiries: info@ravecoffee.co.uk

Call

Office: 01453 832616

Mobile: 07833 532942

http://ravecoffee.co.uk

Analysis of a roasting bean

Indian coffee may brew success with untapped potential

May 6, 2012:

The second-most traded commodity in the world after crude oil, coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in world trade. It is an important source of foreign exchange to producing countries. Its cultivation, processing, trading, transportation and marketing provide employment to more than a hundred million people worldwide. It is one of the most important commodities for many of the least developed economies in Africa.

Considered as the alternative hot beverage of India, coffee is said to have originated in Ethiopia, from where, it spread to Egypt and Yemen. Today, there are two main coffee species cultivated commercially- Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta.

GLOBAL SCENARIO

Global production of coffee was estimated to be around 8.36 million tonnes (mt) in 2010 with Brazil accounting for almost 35 per cent of total production as the world’s leading green coffee producer. This is followed by Vietnam (13 per cent), Indonesia (9.6 per cent) and Colombia (6.5 per cent) in 2010.

Arabica coffee is cultivated in Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, and Asia while Robusta coffee is grown in western and central Africa, throughout South-east Asia, and to some extent in Brazil. Major consumers of coffee include the US, the EU nations particularly Germany, France and the UK followed by Brazil, Japan and other countries in Europe and North America.

INDIAN SCENARIO

Production: India is the sixth-largest producer of coffee after Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, and Ethiopia. With 4,04,645 hectares under coffee cultivation, India accounts for 3.8 per cent of total coffee production (3,02,000 tonnes in 2010-11). In India, Karnataka (70 per cent), Kerala (20 per cent) and Tamil Nadu (7 per cent) are the major producers of coffee. Arabica production amounted to 31 per cent of total output, the remaining 69 per cent being contributed by Robusta. In 2010-11, coffee production in Karnataka and Kerala stood at 2,13,780 tonnes and 65,650 tonnes, respectively, while Tamil Nadu produced 16,650 tonnes during the period. Production of coffee, which was highly concentrated in the South, has now extended to non-traditional areas particularly Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and to North East in the recent years to almost 40,000 ha.

Consumption: Coffee has become increasingly popular in India over the last few years. It is no longer a traditional beverage, but positioned as a youthful and trendy beverage. According to the Coffee Board, domestic consumption is increasing 5 to 6 per cent annually, partly due to expansion of the café culture and the spread of the coffee drinking habit throughout India. Coffee consumption is estimated to be 108,000 tonnes (2010). Urban consumption dominates with about 73 per cent of total volumes and the remaining from rural consumption. South India alone consumes nearly 78 per cent of total coffee consumed in India.

Recent Trends: The coffee planting and bearing area in India has shown an upward trend mostly due to expansion of cultivation in non-traditional States. Arabica coffee productivity in the non-traditional areas is reported to be much lower than in the traditional belt (9.2 quintals/ha), which has brought down the overall yield to 8.4 quintals/ha. Compared to an yield of 21 quintals in Vietnam and 13 quintals in Brazil, productivity is low in India on account of limited mechanisation, pest infestation and labour shortage. Higher price realisation during the past three to four years has prompted coffee growers to follow better agronomic practices, supporting higher production. However, labour costs, which account for almost 65 per cent of the cost of coffee cultivation have continued to escalate in the past few years.

Policy: The Indian Government/Coffee Board provides various subsidies, mostly to small and marginal coffee producers to increase production and improve quality. In addition, the Ministry of Commerce has included coffee in the list of products eligible for the duty entitlement passbook (DEPB) scheme and the Vishesh Krishi Upaj Gramodyog Yojana (VKUGY).Total duty credit under the programmes is subject to a maximum of 7.5 per cent. On April 29, 2010, the Finance Minister announced a new Debt Relief Package in Parliament, intended mainly for small coffee growers. Accordingly, 50 per cent of the pre-2002 term loans taken by coffee growers were to be waived, subject to a maximum of Rs 5,00,000 for a farmer.

WAY FORWARD

Globally coffee consumption is expected to grow at 6 per cent annually. Both domestic and international coffee prices hit record highs in calendar year 2011, coupled with all-time high exported volumes. The domestic coffee production is expected to increase at a CAGR of 6.2 per cent for the next three years, while consumption is expected to grow at 6.4 per cent. With coffee outlets set to increase multi-fold in the next 3 years, the coffee industry is likely to continue witnessing similar growth trend in future. India being a minor player in the global market has great potential to improve its market share through higher yields and improved quality. Besides, with domestic consumption being very small when compared to the consumption trend globally, there lies a huge opportunity to expand the market with the help of intensive coffee promotion. At the same time key pressing issues of labour shortage and migration, and tremendous increase in cost of labour are major concern areas for the industry, which are to be critically addressed through effective policy interventions.

Source: YES Bank

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